Cappadocia name used first time by the Persian as Katpatuka which means “the land of the beatifull horses”. Hittite people also used the breed the horses in this region.
Hitites were the first civilization; 1800 b.c 1200 b.c Then Thabals ,Asyrian Persians lived. Than Romans controlled this rocky land. Cappadocia was a refuge and a shelter for earl christians during the Roman and Byzantine period. Than region becomes an important christian teaching center. So that locals carved out over 300 cave churches and 30 underground cities.Until 1924 local christians and the Turks were living in this area together in the harmony atmospher. Cappadocia is a geological poem written by time,by million yeared wind and water sweeping or softly sliding by. The hand that shaped these forms seems all but sentient, giving fantastic shape to a world not quite of this planet.
This high scherzo of nature tarnsported calls the traveller to delirious voyaging. In this magnificient voyage Nostalji Cave Suit Hotel invites you to stay in the caves with first class comfort.
GEOGRAPHY OF CAPPADOCIA
…That’s a unique world shaped by Mother Nature with the help of lava, wind and water!
The name Cappadocia is derived from Old Persian “Katpatuka” meaning Land of Beautiful Horses.
Cappadocia is an extraordinary land, combining unique and beautiful natural features with a fascinating cultural and historical past. Hittites, Byzantines and early Christians established important landmarks here, as did Mother Nature with her stunning erosion of the soft volcanic deposits.
The ancient region of Cappadocia lies in central Anatolia, between the cities of Nevsehir, Kayseri and Nigde. Here, the traveller finds one of the most fantastic landscapes in the world. Wind and weather have eroded soft volcanic rock into hundreds of strangely shaped pillars, cones and “fairy chimneys”, often very tall, and in every shade from pink through yellow to russet browns.
Millions of years ago lava and volcanic ash from the now extinct volcanoes Erciyes, Hasandagi and Golludag, covered the plateau with tuff, creating a malleable medium for Mother Nature’s artistry. Her wind, rain and floodwaters have gently sculpted the area creating unforgettable valleys, magical cone-shaped monoliths, and a landscape that almost defies description.
Humans have added their touch to the landscape as well. Beginning in the 2nd century BC, Christians fleeing persecution carved small, defensible refuges, high up in the rocks of hard-to-find valleys and gorges. A very positive crowd of early hermits, they dug monasteries and churches and completed their work with heavenly frescoes of Jesus and stories from the Bible. Others who added their touch to the landscape included the Hittites, Phrygians, Medes, Persians, Romans, Seljuks and the Ottomans.
FORMATION OF FAIRY CHIMNEYS:Fairy Chimneys are generally found in the valleys of the Uçhisar – Urgup – Avanos triangle, between Urgup and Sahinefendi, around the town of Cat in Nevsehir, in the Soganli valley, and in the village of Selime near Ihlara valley.
Fairy Chimneys – Formation
The interesting rock formations, known as “Fairy Chimneys”, have been formed as the result of the erosion of this tufa layer, sculpted by wind and flood water, running down on the slopes of the vallyes. Water has fonud its way through the valleys creating cracks and ruptures in the hard rock. The softer, easily erodable material underneath has been gradually swept away receding the slopes and in this way, conical formations protected with basalt caps have been created. The Fairy Chimneys with caps, mainly found in the vicinity of Avanos, have a conical shaped body and a boulder on top of it. The cone is constructed from tufa and volcanic ash, while the cap is of hard, more resistant rock such as lahar or ignimbrite. Various types of Fairy Chimneys, are found in Cappadocia. Among these are those with caps, cones, mushroom like forms, columns and pointed rocks.
This picture is from Avanos Pasabaglari, phases of fairy chimneys’ formation
Sweeping Curves and Patterns
Another characteristic feature of the area are the sweeping curves and patterns on the sides of the valleys, formed by rainwater. These lines of sedimentation exposed by erosion display a range of hues. The array of color seen on some of the valleys is due to the difference in heat of the lava layers. Such patterns can be seen in Avanos (Cavusin/Gulludere), Uchisar, Goreme/Meskendir, Ortahisar/Kizilcukur and Pancarlik valleys.
Evidence of Prehistoric cultures in Cappadocia can most easily be found around Köşkhöyük/Niğde, Aşıklıhöyük/Aksaray and in the Civelek cave near Nevşehir. Excavations in these three areas are still taking place.
Civelek cave is in the vicinity of Civelek village, which is situated 4 km west of Gülşehir, in the province of Nevşehir. The cave is found in the hill known as Gurlek Hill.
Access can be gained by means of a gallery which extends downwards for 14 m to the limestone cave. There are many calcite crystal stalagtites, beteen 5 and 15 cm in length, hanging from the sections of the cave ceiling, the main part of which is 22 by 11 m. During excavatinos carried out by Nevşehir Museum and cave experts from Italy, hand made cups, cooking pots of various sizes, spindles and tools made from stone and bone dating from the Chalcolithic Period (5500-3000 BC) were unearthed from the floor of the cave and especially among the collapsed rocks. In addition to this, surface excavations in the surrounding caves unearthed tools made from absidian and flint. In an attempt to preserve it. Civelek cave is closed to visitors.
Asikli Hoyuk (Mound)
Archaeological excavations discovered the first brick living quarters in Cappadocia in Asikli Höyük (mound), an extension of Aksaray’s Ihlara Valley settlements. Yellow and pink clay plaster was used in making the walls and floors of the houses, some of the most beautiful and cmoplicated architectural examples of firs towns.
They buried the dead in the Hocker position, like a fetus in the womb, on the floor of their houses. According to Prof.U.Esin, who reserarched at Aşıklı Höyük, a population greater that had been previousily theorized is revealed by the abundance and density of the settlements in these areas in the Aceramic Neolithic Period. No where else in Anatolia can the unique obsidian tools be found like those from Cappadocian Mound. Figurines, made from lightly baked clay, were unearthed together with flat stone axes wrought in many fine shapes, chisels and coulters made from bones and ornaments made from copper, agate and other different kinds of stones. Evidence provided by a skeleton found here indicates that the earliest brain surgery (trepanation) known in the world was performed on a woman 20-25 years ofage at Aşıklı Höyük.
Kosk Hoyuk (Mound)
During excavations at Köşk Höyük, in the vicinity of Niğde, tools and weapons made from obsidian, silica, stone and bone have been found. The most important artifact to be found at this site is the mother goddess statuettes belonging to the Neiolithic and Chalcolithic ages. In that age in Anatolia, the Mother Goddess statue, representing abudance and fertility, was both important and widespread.